Accent Bibliography

Below is a list of websites, books, and articles relevant to accents. It is not meant to be comprehensive. It would be difficult to create such a list because the topic of accents makes its way into a variety of disciplines: linguistics, applied linguistics, social psychology, psychology of language, sociology, sociolinguistics, communication, English as a foreign language, and even theater and film studies. Although I am familiar with how other disciplines approach the science of accents, I am a social psychologist and as a result my interests lie in the social aspects of speaking with an accent and less so in the equally important but linguistic analysis of stress, intonation, patterns, and other parts of accents.


The list contains on-line resources, books, and academic articles. The latter, I grouped thematically as much as possible, but some works fit more than one category. In that case, only when an article was almost equally relevant to two different categories, did I list it in both. The list will be updated as I continue to locate more work and follow recent developments in this field. If you know of any sources that should be on the list, please let me know.

Categories/Themes On-line resources

Speech accent archive: http://accent.gmu.edu

National Association for Multicultural Education: http://nameorg.org/

The National Clearinghouse for English Acquisition (and Language Instruction Educational Programs): http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/

Center for Applied Linguistics: http://www.cal.org/

International Association of Language and Social Psychology: http://www.ialsp.org/

Linguistic Society of America: http://www.lsadc.org/
(The Publications section of the LSA website includes informative pamphlets, for example, on Language Acquisition and Why Do Some People Have An Accent: http://www.lsadc.org/info/ling-faqs.cfm)

Varieties of English: http://www.ic.arizona.edu/~lsp/

Terralingua, an international NGO devoted to sustaining the biocultural diversity of life: http://www.terralingua.org/

Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages: http://www.tesol.org/s_tesol/index.asp


Books on accents

Giles, H., & Coupland, N. (1991). Language: Contexts and consequences. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.

Giles. H., & Powesland, P. F. (1975). Speech style and social evaluation. London: Academic Press.

Gudykunst, W. B. (Ed.). (2005). Theorizing about intercultural communication. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Jenkins, J. (2000). The phonology of English as an international language. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Lamberton, D. M. (Ed.). (2002). The economics of language. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Lenneberg, E. H. (1967). Biological foundations of language. New York: Wiley.

Lippi-Green, R. (1997). English with accents: Language, ideology, and discrimination in the United States. New York: Routledge.

Milroy, J., & Milroy, L. (1999). Authority in language: Investigating standard English. London: Routledge.

Moyer, A. (2004). Age, accents, and experience in second language acquisition: An integrated approach to critical period inquiry. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Scovel, T. (1988). A time to speak: A psycholinguistic inquiry into the critical period for human speech. Cambridge, England: Newbury House.

Wiseman, R. L. (Ed.). (1995). Intercultural communication theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

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Second language acquisition: Pronunciation and the critical period hypothesis

Birdsong, D. (2006). Age and second language acquisition and processing: A selective overview. Language Learning, 56, 9–49.

Bongaerts, T., Mennen, S., & van der Slik, F. (2002). Authenticity of pronunciation in naturalistic second language acquisition: The case of very advanced late learners of Dutch as a second language. Studia Linguistica, 54, 298–308.

Bongaerts, T., van Summeren, C., Planken, B., & Schils, E. (1997). Age and ultimate attainment in the pronunciation of a foreign language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 447–465.

Cook, V. (1999). Going beyond the native speaker in language teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 33, 185–209.

Elliott, R. A. (1997). On the teaching and acquisition of pronunciation within a communicative approach. Hispania, 80, 95–108.

Ellis, N. C., & Sinclair, S. G. (1996). Working memory in the acquisition of vocabulary and syntax: Putting language in good order. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49, 234–250.

Flege, J. E. (1987). A critical period for learning to pronounce foreign languages? Applied Linguistics, 8, 162–177.

Flege, J. E., Birdsong, D., Bialystok, E., Mack, M., Sung, H., & Tsukada, K. (2006).
Degree of foreign accent in English sentences produced by Korean children and adults. Journal of Phonetics, 34, 153–175.

Hakuta, K., Bialystok, E., & Wiley, E. (2003). Critical evidence: A test of the critical-period hypothesis for second-language acquisition. Psychological Science, 14, 31–38.

Johnson, J. S., & Newport, E. L. (1989). Critical period effects in second language learning: The influence of maturational state on the acquisition of English as a second language. Cognitive Psychology, 2, 60–99.

Lamendella, J. T. (1977). General principles of neurofunctional organization and their manifestation in primary and nonprimary language acquisition. Language Learning, 27, 155–196.

Long, M. H. (1990). Maturational constraints on language development. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 12, 251–285.

Moyer, A. (1999). Ultimate attainment in L2 phonology: The critical factors of age, motivation and instruction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21, 81–108.

Munro, M., & Mann, V. (2005). Age of immersion as a predictor of foreign accent. Applied Psycholinguistics, 26, 311–341.

Patkowski, M. S. (1990). Age and accent in a second language: A reply to James Emil Flege. Applied Linguistics, 11, 73–89.

Piske, T., MacKay, I. R. A., & Flege, J. E. (2001). Factors affecting degree of foreign accent in an L2: A review. Journal of Phonetics, 29, 191–215.

Purcell, E. T., & Suter, R. W. (1980). Predictors of pronunciation accuracy: A reexamination. Language Learning, 30, 271–287.

Scovel, T. (1969). Foreign accents, language acquisition, and cerebral dominance. Language Learning, 19, 245–253.

Scovel, T. (2000). A critical review of the critical period research. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 20, 213–223.

Suter, R. W. (1976). Predictors of pronunciation accuracy in second language learning. Language Learning, 26, 233–253.

Tahta, S., Wood, M., & Loewenthal, K. (1981). Foreign accents: Factors relating to transfer of accent from the first language to a second language. Language and Speech, 24, 265–272.

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Second language acquisition: Factors affecting acquisition of pronunciation (other than age)

Acton, W. (1984). Changing fossilized pronunciation. TESOL Quarterly, 18, 71–85.

Berkowitz, D. (1989). The effect of cultural empathy on second-language phonological production. In Eisenstein, M. R. (Ed.), The dynamic interlanguage: Empirical studies in second language variation (pp. 101–114 ). New York: Plenum.

Bley-Vroman, R. W. (1983). The comparative fallacy in interlanguage studies: The
case of systematicity, Language Learning, 33, 1–17.

Coppieters, R. (1987). Competence differences between native and near-native speakers. Language, 63, 544-573.

Flege, J. E., Frieda, E. M., & Nozawa, T. (1997). Amount of native-language (L1) use affects the pronunciation of an L2. Journal of Phonetics, 25, 169–186.

Gardner, R. C. (1979). Social psychological aspects of second language acquisition. In H. Giles & R. St. Clair (Eds.), Language and social psychology (pp. 193–220). Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell.

Jiang, M., Green, R. J., Henley, T. B., & Masten, W. G. (2009). Acculturation in relation
to the acquisition of a second language. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 30, 481–492.

Masgoret, A.-M., & Gardner, R. C. (2003). Attitudes, motivation, and second language learning: A meta-analysis of studies conducted by Gardner and associates. Language Learning, 53, 167–210.

Moyer, A. (1999). Ultimate attainment in L2 phonology: The critical factors of age, motivation and instruction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21, 81–108.

Moyer, A. (2007). Do language attitudes determine accent? A study of bilinguals in the USA. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 28, 502–518.

Slevc, L. R., & Miyake, A. (2006). Individual differences in second-language proficiency: Does musical ability matter? Psychological Science, 17, 675–681.

Smit, U. (2002). The interaction of motivation and achievement in advanced EFL pronunciation learners. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 40, 89–116.

Tarone, E. (2007). Sociolinguistic approaches to second language acquisition research—1997–2007. The Modern Language Journal, 91, 837–848.

Thompson, I. (1991). Foreign accents revisited: The English pronunciation of Russian immigrants. Language Learning, 41, 177–204.

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Factors affecting perception of accents

Flege, J. E. (1984). The detection of French accent by American listeners. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 76, 692–707.

Flege, J. E. (1988). Factors affecting degree of perceived foreign accent in English sentences. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 84, 70–79.

Flege, J. E., & Fletcher, K. L. (1992). Talker and listener effects on degree of perceived foreign accent. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 91, 370–389.

Flege, J. E., Munro, M. J., & MacKay, I. R. A. (1995). Factors affecting strength of perceived foreign accent in a second language. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 97, 3125–3134.

Gatbonton, E., Trofimovich, P., & Magid, M. (2005). Learners’ ethnic group affiliation and L2 pronunciation accuracy: A sociolinguistic investigation. TESOL Quarterly, 39, 489–511.

Levi, S. V., Winters, S. J., & Pisoni, D. B. (2007). Speaker-independent factors affecting the perception of foreign accent in a second language. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 121, 2327–2338.

Piske, T., MacKay, I. R. A., & Flege, J. E. (2001). Factors affecting degree of foreign accent in an L2: A review. Journal of Phonetics, 29, 191–215.

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Stereotyping and accent prejudice: What listeners think and how they feel about individuals with non-standard (foreign: non-English or non-American; regional; ethnic; class) accents

Alford, R. L., & Strother, J. B. (1990). Attitudes of native and nonnative speakers toward
selected regional accents of U.S. English TESOL Quarterly, 24, 479–495.

Abrams, D., & Hogg, M. A. (1987). Language attitudes, frames of reference, and social
identity: A Scottish dimension. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 6, 201–213.

Alford, R. L., & Strother, J. B. (1992). A Southern opinion of regional accents. Florida
Communication Journal,
20, 49–59.

Bayard, D., & Green, J. A. (2005). Evaluating English accents worldwide. Te Reo, 48, 21–28.  

Bradac, J. J. (1990). Language attitudes and impression formation. In H. Giles & W. P. Robinson (Eds.), Handbook of language and social psychology (pp. 387–412). London: John Wiley.

Bradac, J. J., & Giles, H. (2005). Language and social psychology: Conceptual niceties, complexities, curiosities, monstrosities, and how it all works. In K. L. Fitch & R. E. Sanders (Eds.), Handbook of language and social interaction (pp. 201–230). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Bradac, J. J., & Wisegarver, R. (1984). Ascribed status, lexical diversity, and accent: Determinants of perceived status, solidarity, and control of speech style. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 3, 239–255.

Brennan, E. M., & Brennan, J. S. (1981a). Accent scaling and language attitudes: Reactions to Mexican American English speech. Language and Speech, 24, 207–221.

Brennan, E. M., & Brennan, J. S. (1981b). Measurements of accent and attitude toward Mexican-American speech. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 10, 487–501.

Bresnahan, M. J., Ohashi, R., Nebashi, R., Liu, W. Y., & Shearman, S. M. (2002). Attitudinal and affective response toward accented English. Language and Communication, 22, 171–185.

Callan, V. J., & Gallois, C. (1987). Anglo-Australians’ and immigrants’ attitudes toward language and accent: A review of experimental and survey research. International Migration Review, 21, 48–69.

Callan, V. J., Gallois, C., & Forbes, P. A. (1983). Evaluative reactions to accented English: Ethnicity, sex role, and context. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 14, 407–426.

Cargile, A. C., & Giles, H. (1997). Understanding language attitudes: Exploring listener affect and identity. Language and Communication, 17, 195–217.

Cargile, A. C., Giles, H., Ryan, E. B., & Bradac, J. J. (1994). Language attitudes as a social process: A conceptual model and new directions. Language and Communication, 14, 211–236.

Côté, P., & Clément, R. (1994). Language attitudes: An interactive situated approach. Language and Communication, 14, 237–251.

Creber, C., & Giles, H. (1983). Social context and language attitudes: The role of formality-informality of the setting. Language Sciences, 5, 155–161.

Dailey, R. M., Giles, H., & Jansma, L. L. (2005). Language attitudes in an Anglo-Hispanic context: The role of the linguistic landscape. Language and Communication, 25, 27–38.

DePaulo, B. M., & Coleman, L. M. (1981). Evidence for the specialness of the “baby talk” register. Language and Speech, 24, 223–231.

Dobrow, J. R., & Gidney, C. L. (1998). The good, the bad, and the foreign: The use of dialect in children’s animated television. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 557, 105–119.

Edwards, J. (1982). Language attitudes and their implications among English speakers. In E. B. Ryan & H. Giles (Eds.), Attitudes toward language variation: Social and applied contexts (pp. 20–33). London: Edward Arnold.

Edwards, J. (1999). Refining our understanding of language attitudes. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 18, 101–110.

Ferguson, C. A. (1975). Toward a characterization of English foreigner talk. Anthropological Linguistics, 17, 1–14.

Giles, H. (1970). Evaluative reactions to accents. Educational Review, 22, 211–227.

Giles, H., & Billings, A. C. (2004). Assessing language attitudes: Speaker evaluation studies. In A. Davies & C. Elder (Eds.), The handbook of applied linguistics (pp. 187–209). Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Giles, H., & Bourhis, R. Y. (1976b). Voice and racial categorization in Britain. Communication Monographs, 43, 108–114.

Giles, H., & Ryan, E. B. (1982). Prolegomena for developing a social psychological theory of language attitudes. In E. B. Ryan & H. Giles (Eds.), Attitudes toward language variation: Social and applied contexts (pp. 208–223). London: Edward Arnold.

Giles, H., Williams, A., Mackie, D. M., & Rosselli, F. (1995). Reactions to Anglo- and Hispanic-American-accented speakers: Affect, identity, persuasion, and the English-only controversy. Language and Communication, 15, 107–120.

Hosoda, M., Stone-Romero, E. F., & Walter, J. N. (2007). Listeners’ cognitive and affective reactions to English speakers with standard American English and Asian accents. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 104, 307–326.

Krauss, R. M., & Pardo, J. S. (2005). Speaker perception and social behavior: Bridging social psychology and speech science. In P. A. M. van Lange (Ed.), Bridging social psychology: Benefits of transdisciplinary approaches (273–278). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Ladegaard, H. J. (1998). National stereotypes and language attitudes: The perception of British, American and Australian language and culture in Denmark. Language and Communication, 18, 251–274.

Lambert, W. E., Hodgson, R. C., Gardner, R. C., & Fillenbaum, S. (1960). Evaluational reactions to spoken languages. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 60, 44–51.

Lindemann, S. (2003). Koreans, Chinese or Indians? Attitudes and ideologies about non-native English speakers in the United States. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 7, 348–364.

Lindemann, S. (2005). Who speaks “broken English”? US undergraduates’ perception of non-native English. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 15, 187–212.

Mulac, A., Hanley, T. D., & Prigge, D. Y. (1974). Effects of phonological speech foreignness upon three dimensions of attitude of selected American listeners. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 60, 411–420.

Munro, M. J., & Derwing, T. M. (1994). Evaluations of foreign accent in extemporaneous and read material. Language Testing, 11, 253–266.

Nesdale, D., & Rooney, R. (1996). Evaluations and stereotyping of accented speakers by pre-adolescent children. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 15, 133–154.

Ryan, E. B. (1983). Social psychological mechanisms underlying native speaker evaluations of non-native speech. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 5, 148–159.

Ryan, E. B., & Carranza, M. A. (1975). Evaluative reactions of adolescents toward speakers of standard English and Mexican American accented English. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 855–863.

Ryan, E. B., Carranza, M. A., & Moffie, R. W. (1977). Reactions toward varying degrees of accentedness in the speech of Spanish-English bilinguals. Language and Speech, 20, 267 –273.

Ryan, E. B., Giles, H., & Sebastian, R. J. (1982). An integrative perspective for the study of attitudes toward language variation. In E. B. Ryan & H. Giles (Eds.), Attitudes toward language variation: Social and applied contexts (pp. 1–19). London: Edward Arnold.

Sebastian, R. J., & Ryan, E. B. (1985). Speech cues and social evaluation: markers of
ethnicity, social class, and age. In H. Giles & R. N. St. Clair (Eds), Recent advances in language, communication, and social psychology, (pp. 112–143). London: Erlbaum.

Spencer-Rodgers, J., & McGovern, T. (2002). Attitudes toward the culturally different: The role of intercultural communication barriers, affective responses, consensual stereotypes, and perceived threat. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 26, 609–631.

Stewart, M. A., Ryan, E. B., & Giles, H. (1985). Accent and social class effects on status and solidarity evaluations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 11, 98–105.

Strongman, K. T., & Woosley, J. (1967). Stereotyped reactions to regional accents. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 6, 164–167.

Šimičić, L., & Sujoldžić, A. (2004). Cultural implications of attitudes and evaluative reactions toward dialect variation in Croatian youth. Collegium Antropologicum, 28, 97–107.

Thorne, S. (2005). Accent pride and prejudice: Are speakers of stigmatized variants really less loyal? Journal of Quantitative Linguistics, 12, 151–166.

van Bezooijen, R. (1994). Aesthetic evaluations of Dutch language varieties. Language and Communication, 14, 253–263.

Wigboldus, D., & Douglas, K. (2007). Language, stereotypes, and intergroup relations. In K. Fiedler (Ed.), Social communication (pp. 79–106). New York: Psychology Press.

White, M. J., & Li, Y. (1991). Second-language fluency and person perception in China and the United States. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 10, 99–113.

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Accent discrimination: Employment

Atkins, C. P. (1993). Do employment recruiters discriminate on the basis of nonstandard dialect? Journal of Employment Counseling, 30, 108–118.

Davila, A., Bohara, A. K., & Saenz, R. (1993). Accent penalties and the earnings of Mexican Americans. Social Science Quarterly, 74, 902–916.

de la Zerda, N., & Hopper, R. (1979). Employment interviewers’ reactions to Mexican American speech. Communication Monographs, 46, 126–134.

Goto, S. G., Gee, G. C., & Takeuchi, D. T. (2002). Strangers still? The experience of discrimination among Chinese Americans. Journal of Community Psychology, 30, 211–224.

Kalin, R., & Rayko, D. S. (1978). Discrimination in evaluative judgments against foreign-accented job candidates. Psychological Reports, 43, 1203–1209.

Litvin, D. R., (1997). The discourse of diversity: from biology to management. Organization, 4, 187–210.

Luhman, R. (1990). Appalachian English stereotypes: Language attitudes in Kentucky.
Language in Society, 19, 331–348.

Rubin, D. L. (2002). Help! My professor (or doctor or boss) doesn’t speak English. In J. N. Martin, T. K. Nakayama, & L. A. Flores (Eds.), Readings in intercultural communication: Experiences and contexts (pp. 127–137). Boston: McGraw Hill.

Rubin, D. L., Healy, P., Gardiner, T. C., Zath, R. C., & Moore, C. P. (1997). Nonnative physicians as message sources: Effects of accent and ethnicity on patients’ responses to AIDS prevention counseling. Health Communication, 9, 351–368.

Skachkova, P. (2007). Academic careers of immigrant women professors in the U.S. Higher Education, 53, 697–738.

Tsalikis, J., Ortiz-Buonafina, M., & LaTour, M. S. (1992). The role of accent on the credibility and effectiveness of the international business-person: The case of Guatemala. International Marketing Review, 9, 57–72.

Wated, G., & Sanchez, J. I. (2006). The role of accent as a work stressor on attitudinal and health-related work outcomes. International Journal of Stress Management, 13, 329–350.

Willemyns, M., Gallois, C., Callan, V. J., & Pittam, J. (1997). Accent accommodation in the job interview: Impact of interviewer accent and gender. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 16, 3–22.

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Accent discrimination: Education

Bailey, K. M. (1984). The “foreign TA problem.” In K. M. Bailey, F. Pialorsi, & J. Zukowski-
Faust (Eds.), Foreign teaching assistants in the U.S. universities (pp. 3–15). Washington, DC: National Association for Foreign Student Affairs.

Boyd, S. (2003). Foreign-born teachers in the multilingual classroom in Sweden: The role of attitudes to foreign accent. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 6, 283–295.

Fleisher, B., Hashimoto, M., & Weinberg, B. A. (2002). Foreign GTAs can be effective teachers of economics. Journal of Economic Education, 33, 299–325.

Gill, M. M. (1994). Accent and stereotypes: Their effect on perceptions of teachers and lecture comprehension. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 22, 348–361.

Jacobs, L. C., & Friedman, C. B. (1988). Student achievement under foreign teaching associates compared with native teaching associates. Journal of Higher Education, 59, 551–563.

Kavas, A., & Kavas, A. (2008). An exploratory study of undergraduate college students’ perceptions and attitudes toward foreign accented faculty. College Student Journal, 42, 879–890.

Lee, J. J., & Rice, C. (2007). Welcome to America? International student perceptions of discrimination. Higher Education, 53, 381–409.

Marvasti, A. (2005). U.S. academic institutions and perceived effectiveness of foreign-born faculty. Journal of Economic Issues, 39, 151–176.

Rubin, D. L. (1992). Nonlanguage factors affecting undergraduates’ judgments of nonnative English-speaking teaching assistants. Research in Higher Education, 33, 511–531.

Rubin, D. L. (2002). Help! My professor (or doctor or boss) doesn’t speak English. In J. N. Martin, T. K. Nakayama, & L. A. Flores (Eds.), Readings in intercultural communication: Experiences and contexts (pp. 127–137). Boston: McGraw Hill.

Rubin, D. L., & Smith, K. A. (1990). Effects of accent, ethnicity, and lecture topic on undergraduates’ perceptions of non-native English speaking teaching assistants. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 14, 337–353.

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Accent discrimination: In the courts, other settings, and in general

Feldman, R. E. (1968). Response to compatriot and foreigner who seek assistance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 10, 202–214.

Frumkin, L. (2007). Influences of accent and ethnic background on perceptions of eyewitness testimony. Psychology, Crime and Law, 13, 317–331.

Fuertes, J. N., & Gelso, C. J. (2000). Hispanic counselors’ race and accent and Euro Americans’ universal-diverse orientation: A study of initial perceptions. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 6, 211–219.

Korzenny, F., & Schiff, E. (1987). Hispanic perceptions of communication discrimination. Hispanic Journal of the Behavioral Sciences, 9, 33–48.

Lippi-Green, R. (1994). Accent, standard language ideology, and discriminatory pretext in the courts. Language in Society, 23, 163–198.

Matsuda, M. J. (1991). Voices of America: Accent, antidiscrimination law, and a jurisprudence for the last reconstruction. Yale Law Journal, 100, 1329–1407.

Munro, M. J. (2003). A primer on accent discrimination in the Canadian context. TESL Canada Journal, 20, 38–51.

Myers, M. A. (2001). Accent discrimination: An intercultural problematic. Florida Communication Journal, 29, 14–27.

Ng, S. H. (2007). Language-based discrimination: Blatant and subtle forms. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 26, 106–122.

Nguyen, B. B.-D. (1993). Accent discrimination and the Test of Spoken English: A call for an objective assessment of the comprehensibility of nonnative speakers. California Law Review, 81, 1325–1361.

Zhao, B., Ondrich, J., & Yinger, J. (2006). Why do real estate brokers continue to discriminate? Evidence from the 2000 Housing Discrimination Study. Journal of Urban Economics, 59, 394–419.

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Comprehension: Understanding accents

Adank, P., Evans, B. G., Stuart-Smith, J., & Scott, S. K. (2009). Comprehension of familiar and
unfamiliar native accents under adverse listening conditions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35, 520–529.

Bent, T., & Bradlow, A. R. (2003). The interlanguage speech intelligibility benefit. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 114, 1600–1610.

Bradlow, A. R., & Bent, T. (2008). Perceptual adaptation to non-native speech. Cognition, 106,
707–729.

Clarke, C. M., & Garrett, M. F. (2004). Rapid adaptation to foreign-accented English. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 116, 3647–3658.

Derwing, T. M., & Munro, M. J. (1997). Accent, intelligibility, and comprehensibility: Evidence from four L1s. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 20, 1–16.

Derwing, T. M., & Munro, M. J. (2009). Putting accent in its place: Rethinking obstacles to communication. Language Teaching, 42, 476–490.

Derwing, T. M., Munro, M. J., & Thompson, R. I. (2007). A longitudinal study of ESL learners’ fluency and comprehensibility development. Applied Linguistics, 29, 359–380.

Floccia, C., Goslin, J., Girard, F., & Konopczynski, G. (2006). Does a regional accent perturb speech processing? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 32, 1276–1293.

Gass, S. M., & Varonis, E. M. (1984). The effect of familiarity on the comprehensibility of non-native speech. Language Learning, 34, 65–87.

Gill, M. M. (1994). Accent and stereotypes: Their effect on perceptions of teachers and lecture comprehension. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 22, 348–361.

Kennedy, S., & Trofimovich, P. (2008). Intelligibility, comprehensibility, and accentedness of L2 speech: The role of listener experience and semantic context. Canadian Modern Language Review/La Revue canadienne des langues vivantes, 64, 459–489.

Lindemann, S. (2002). Listening with an attitude: A model of native-speaker comprehension of non-native speakers in the United States. Language in Society, 31, 419–441.

Major, R. C., Fitzmaurice, S. M., Bunta, F., & Balasubramanian, C. (2005). Testing the effects of regional, ethnic, and international dialects of English on listening comprehension. Language Learning, 55, 37–69.

Munro, M. J., & Derwing, T. M. (1995). Foreign accent, comprehensibility, and intelligibility in the speech of second language learners. Language Learning, 45, 73–97.

Munro, M. J., & Derwing, T. M. (1995). Processing time, accent, and comprehensibility in the perception of native and foreign-accented speech. Language and Speech, 38, 289–306.

Munro, M. J., & Derwing, T. M. (1999). Foreign accent, comprehensibility, and intelligibility in the speech of second language learners. Language Learning, 49, 285–310.

Munro, M. J., & Derwing, T. M. (2001). Modeling perceptions of the accentedness and comprehensibility of L2 speech: The role of speaking rate. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 23, 451–468.

Munro, M. J., Derwing, T. M., & Morton, S. L. (2006). The mutual intelligibility of L2 speech. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28, 111–131.

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English-language-only controversy

Barker, V., & Giles, H. (2004). English-only policies: Perceived support and social limitation.
Language and Communication, 24, 77–95.

Barker, V., Giles, H., Noels, K., Duck, J., Hecht, M. L., & Clément, R. (2001). The English-only
movement: A communication analysis of changing perceptions of language vitality. Journal of Communication, 51, 3–37.

Bourhis, R. Y. (1982). Language policies and language attitudes: Le monde de la Francophonie.
In E. B. Ryan & H. Giles (Eds.), Attitudes toward language variation: Social and applied contexts (pp. 34–62). London: Edward Arnold.

Bourhis, R. Y., Montaruli, E., & Amiot, C. E. (2007). Language planning and French-English
bilingual communication: Montreal field studies from 1977 to 1997. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 185, 187–224.

Padilla, A. M., Lindholm, K. J., Chen, A., Durán, R., Hakuta, K., Lambert, W., et al. (1991). The English-only movement: Myths, reality, and implications for psychology. American Psychologist, 46, 120–130.

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Accent “reduction” and “elimination” and accent as a "disorder"

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (1998). Students and professionals who speak English with accents and nonstandard dialects: Issues and recommendations (Technical Report). Retrieved April 1, 2010, from, http://www.asha.org/docs/html/TR1998-00154.html

Cheng, L.-R. L. (1999). Moving beyond accent: Social and cultural realities of living with many tongues. Topics in Language Disorders, 19, 1–10.

Cook, V. (1999). Going beyond the native speaker in language teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 33, 185–209.

Derwing, T. M., Munro, M. J., & Wiebe, G. (1998). Evidence in favor of a broad framework for pronunciation training. Language Learning, 48, 393–410.

Montgomery, J. K. (1999). Accents and dialects: Creating a national professional statement. Topics in Language Disorders, 19, 78–86.

Müller, N., Guendouzi, J., & Ball, M. J. (2000). Reply: Accent modification, pronunciation training, communication enhancement: The need for definitions, delimitations, and research. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 2, 151–154.

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Accent pride and accent accommodation: Do we try to sound the same or different and why

Bailey, G., & Tillery, J. (1996). The persistence of Southern American English. Journal of English Linguistics, 24, 308–321.

Beebe, L. M., & Giles, H. (1984). Speech-accommodation theories: a discussion in terms of
second-language acquisition. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 46, 5–32.

Beebe, L. M., & Zuengler, J. (1983). Accommodation theory: An explanation for style shifting in second language dialects. In N. Wolfson & E. Judd (Eds.), Sociolinguistics and language acquisition (pp.195–213). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Coupland, N. (1984). Accommodation at work: Some phonological data and their implications. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 46, 49–70.

Coupland, N., Coupland, J., Giles, H., & Henwood, K. (1988). Accommodating the elderly: Invoking and extending a theory. Language in Society, 17, 1–41.

Edwards, J. (1997). Language minorities and language maintenance. Annual Review of
Applied Linguistics,
17, 30–42.

Fishman, J. A. (Ed.). (1989). Language and ethnicity in minority sociolinguistic
perspective
. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Gallois, C., Ogay, T., & Giles, H. (2005). Communication accommodation theory: A look back and a look ahead. In W. B. Gudykunst (Ed.), Theorizing about intercultural communication (pp. 121–148). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Giles, H. (1973). Accent mobility: A model and some data. Anthropological Linguistics, 15, 87–109.

Giles, H. (1978). Linguistic differentiation between ethnic groups. In H. Tajfel (Ed.), Differentiation between social groups: Studies in the social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 361–393). London: Academic Press.

Giles, H., Coupland, N., & Coupland, J. (1991). Accommodation theory: Communication, context, and consequence. In: Giles, H., Coupland, J., & Coupland, N. (Eds.), Contexts of accommodation: Developments in applied sociolinguistics (pp. 1-68). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Giles, H., & Gasiorek, J. (in press). Communication, elderspeak, and ageing. In K. W. Schaie & S. Willis (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of aging. New York: Elsevier.

Giles, H., & Johnson, P. (1987). Ethnolinguistic identity theory: A social psychological approach to language maintenance. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 68, 69–99.

Giles, H., & Ogay, T. (2009). Communication accommodation theory. In B. B. Whaley & W. Samter (Eds.), Explaining communication: Contemporary theories and exemplars (pp. 326–344). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Giles, H., & Smith, P. M. (1979). Accommodation theory: Optimal levels of convergence. In H. Giles & R. N. St. Clair (Eds.), Language and social psychology (pp. 45–65). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.

Giles, H., & Street, R. L., Jr. (1994). Communicator characteristics and behavior. In G. R. Miller & M. Knapp (Eds.), Handbook of interpersonal communication (2nd ed., pp. 103–161). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Giles, H., Willemyns, M., Gallois, C., & Anderson, M. C. (2007). Accommodating a new frontier: The context of law enforcement. In K. Fiedler (Ed.), Social communication (pp. 129–162). New York: Psychology Press.

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Intergroup relations: Why accent and language matter and their role in interactions among different groups

Bourhis, R. Y. (1979). Language in ethnic interaction: A social psychological approach. In H.
Giles & B. St. Jacques (Eds.), Language and ethnic relations (pp. 117–141). Oxford, UK: Pergamon.

Bourhis, R. Y. (1982). Language policies and language attitudes: Le monde de la Francophonie. In E. B. Ryan & H. Giles (Eds.), Attitudes toward language variation: Social and applied contexts (pp. 34–62). London: Edward Arnold.

Bourhis, R. Y. (1984). Cross-cultural communication in Montreal: Two field studies since Bill 101. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 46, 33–47.

Bourhis, R. Y., & Giles, H. (1977). The language of intergroup distinctiveness. In H. Giles (Ed.), Language, ethnicity and intergroup relations (pp. 119–134). London: Academic Press.

Bourhis, R. Y., Giles, H., Leyens, J.-P., & Tajfel, H. (1979). Psycholinguistic distinctiveness: Language divergence in Belgium. In H. Giles & R. S. Clair (Eds.), Language and social psychology (pp. 158–185). Oxford: Blackwell.

Bourhis, R. Y., Giles, H., & Tajfel, H. (1973). Language as a determinant of Welsh identity. European Journal of Social Psychology, 3, 447–460.

Bourhis, R. Y., Moïse, L. C., Perreault, S., & Senécal, S. (1997). Towards an interactive acculturation model: A social psychological approach. International Journal of Psychology, 32, 369–386.

Bourhis, R. Y., Montaruli, E., & Amiot, C. E. (2007). Language planning and French-English bilingual communication: Montreal field studies from 1977 to 1997. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 185, 187–224.

Bourhis, R. Y., & Sachdev, I. (1984). Vitality perceptions and language attitudes: Some Canadian data. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 3, 97–126.

Clément, R. (1980). Ethnicity, contact and communicative competence in a second language. In H. Giles, W. P. Robinson, & P. M. Smith (Eds.), Language: Social psychological perspectives (pp. 147–154). Oxford, UK: Pergamon.

Clément, R., Baker, S. C., & MacIntyre, P. D. (2003). Willingness to communicate in a second language: The effects of context, norms, and vitality. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 22, 190–209.

Deprez, K., & Persoons, Y. (1984). On the ethnolinguistic identity of Flemish high school students in Brussels. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 3, 273–296.

Giles, H. (1979). Ethnicity markers in speech. In K. R. Scherer & H. Giles (Eds.), Social
markers in speech
(pp. 251-290). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Giles, H., Bourhis, R. Y., Trudgill, P., & Lewis, A. (1974). The imposed norm hypothesis: A validation. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 60, 405–410.

Reid, S. A., & Giles, H. (2005). Intergroup relations: Its linguistic and communicative parameters. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 8, 211–214.

Ros, M., Cano, J. I., & Huici, C. (1987). Language and intergroup perception in Spain. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 6, 243–259.

Street, R. L., & Giles, H. (1982). Speech accommodation theory: A social cognitive approach to language and speech behavior. In M. E. Roloff & C. R. Berger (Eds.), Social cognition and communication (pp. 193–226). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Taylor, D. M., & Gardner, R. C. (1970). Bicultural communication: A study of communicational efficiency and person perception. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement, 2, 67–81.

Taylor, D. M., & Simard, L. M. (1975). Social interaction in a bilingual setting. Canadian Psychological Review/ Psychologie canadienne, 16, 240–254.

Willemyns, M., Gallois, C., Callan, V. J., & Pittam, J. (1997). Accent accommodation in the job interview: Impact of interviewer accent and gender. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 16, 3–22.

Ylänne-McEwen, V., & Coupland, N. (2000). Accommodation theory: A conceptual resource for intercultural sociolinguistics. In H. Spencer-Oatey (Ed.), Culturally speaking: Managing rapport through talk across cultures (pp. 191–214). London: Continuum.

Zuengler, J. (1982). Applying accommodation theory to variable performance data in L2. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 4, 181–192.

Zuengler, J. (1989). Assessing an interaction-based paradigm: How accommodative should we be? In M. R. Eisenstein (Ed.), The dynamic interlanguage: Empirical studies in second language variation (pp. 49–67). New York: Plenum.

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Bilingualism

Ardila, A. (2003). Language representation and working memory with bilinguals. Journal of Communication Disorders, 36, 233–240.

Baddeley, A., Gathercole, S., & Papagno, C. (1998). The phonological loop as a language learning device. Psychological Review, 105, 158–173.

Bialystok, E. (2006). Effect of bilingualism and computer video game experience on the Simon task. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 60, 68–79.

Bialystok, E. (2007). Cognitive effects of bilingualism: How linguistic experience leads to cognitive change. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 10, 210–223.

Bialystok, E., & Shapero, D. (2005). Ambiguous benefits: the effect of bilingualism on reversing ambiguous figures. Developmental Science, 8, 595–604.

Bialystok, E., Craik, F., & Luk, G. (2008). Cognitive control and lexical access in younger and older bilinguals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 34, 859–873.

Chen, S. X., Benet-Martínez, V., & Bond, M. H. (2008). Bicultural identity, bilingualism, and psychological adjustment in multicultural societies: Immigration-based and globalization-based acculturation. Journal of Personality, 76, 803–838.

Lambert, W. E. (1967). A social psychology of bilingualism. Journal of Social Issues, 23, 91–109.

Landry, R., & Bourhis, R. Y. (1997). Linguistic landscape and ethnolinguistic vitality: An empirical study. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 16, 23–49.

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An accent from the non-native speaker's perspective

Creese, G., & Kambere, E. (2003). What Colour Is Your English? Canadian Review of Sociology & Anthropology, 40, 565–573.

Derwing, T. M. (2003). What do ESL students say about their accents? Canadian Modern Language Review/La Revue canadienne des langues vivantes, 59, 547–566.

Derwing, T. M., & Rossiter, M. J. (2002). ESL learners’ perceptions of their pronunciation needs and strategies. System, 30, 155–166.

MacIntyre, P. D., Dörnyei, Z., Clément, R., & Noels, K. A. (1998). Conceptualizing willingness to communicate in a L2: A situational model of L2 confidence and affiliation. Modern Language Journal, 82, 545–562.

Marx, N. (2002). Never quite a “native speaker:” Accent and identity in the L2 - and the L1. The Canadian Modem Language Review/La Revue canadienne des langues vivantes, 59, 264–281.

Paladino, M.-P., Poddesu, L., Rauzi, M., Vaes, J., Cadinu, M., & Forer, D. (2009). Second language competence in the Italian-speaking population of Alto Adige/Südtirol: Evidence for linguistic stereotype threat. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 28, 222–243.

Porter, D. & S. Garvin (1989). Attitudes to pronunciation in EFL. Speak Out! 5, 8–15.

Rogan, F., San Miguel, C., Brown, D., & Kilstoff, K. (2006). “You find yourself:” Perceptions of nursing students’ from non-English speaking backgrounds of the effect of an intensive language support program on their oral clinical communication skills. Contemporary Nurse, 23, 72–86.

Szabo, M. (2006). “I meant to say that”: How adult language learners construct positive identities through nonstandard language use. TESL Canada Journal/ Revue TESL du Canada, 24, 21–39.

Woodrow, L. (2006). Anxiety and speaking English as a second language. Regional Language Centre Journal, 37, 308–328.

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Teaching and promoting linguistic tolerance

Cook, V. (1999). Going beyond the native speaker in language teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 33, 185–209.

Derwing, T. M., Rossiter, M. J., & Munro, M. J. (2002). Teaching native speakers to listen to foreign-accented speech. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 23, 245–259.

Harvey, M., Novicevic, M. M., Buckley, M. R., & Fung, H. (2005). Reducing inpatriate managers’ “liability of foreignness” by addressing stigmatization and stereotype threats. Journal of World Business, 40, 267–280.

Ibrahim, R., Eviatar, Z., & Leikin, M. (2008). Speaking Hebrew with an accent: Empathic capacity or other nonpersonal factors. International Journal of Bilingualism, 12, 195–207.

Weyant, J. M. (2007). Perspective taking as a means of reducing negative stereotyping of individuals who speak English as a second language. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37, 703–716.

Zuidema, L. A. (2005). Myth education: Rationale and strategies for teaching against linguistic prejudice. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 48, 666–675.

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Methodology in research on accents

Giles, H., & Bourhis, R. Y. (1976a). Methodological issues in dialect perception: Some social psychological perspectives. Anthropological Linguistics, 18, 294–304.

Southwood, M. H., & Flege, J. E. (1999). Scaling foreign accent: Direct magnitude estimation versus interval scaling. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 13, 335–349.

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Accents and children

Dobrow, J. R., & Gidney, C. L. (1998). The good, the bad, and the foreign: The use of dialect in children’s animated television. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 557, 105–119.

Flege, J. E., Birdsong, D., Bialystok, E., Mack, M., Sung, H., & Tsukada, K. (2006).
Degree of foreign accent in English sentences produced by Korean children and adults. Journal of Phonetics, 34, 153–175.

Girard, F., Floccia, C., & Goslin, J. (2008). Perception and awareness of accents in young children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 26, 409–433.

Kinzler, K. D., Dupoux, E., & Spelke, E. S. (2007). The native language of social cognition. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 12577–12580.

Kinzler, K. D., Shutts, K., DeJesus, J., & Spelke, E. S. (2009). Accent trumps race in guiding children’s social preferences. Social Cognition, 27, 623–634.

Nesdale, D., & Rooney, R. (1996). Evaluations and stereotyping of accented speakers by pre-adolescent children. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 15, 133–154.

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Various

Krauss, R. M., & Chiu, C.-y. (1997). Language and social behavior. In D. Gilbert, S. Fiske & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (Vol. 2, 4th ed., pp. 41–88). Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Krauss, R. M., & Fussell, S. R. (1996). Social psychological models of interpersonal communication. In E. T. Higgins & A. W. Kruglanski (Eds.), Social psychology: A handbook of basic principles (pp. 655–701). New York: Guilford.

Quirk, R. (1990). Language varieties and standard language. English Today, 21, 3–10.

Zuengler, J. (1987). Effects of “expertise” in interactions between native and non-native speakers. Language & Communication, 7, 123–137.

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Phonemes
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